Ecology team improves understanding of valley-wide stream chemistry

April 22, 2014A geostatistical approach for studying environmental conditions in stream networks and landscapes has been successfully applied at a valley-wide scale to assess headwater stream chemistry at high resolution, revealing unexpected patterns in natural chemical components.”Headwater streams make up the majority of stream and river length in watersheds, affecting regional water quality,” said Assistant Professor Kevin J. McGuire, associate director of the Virginia Water Resources Research Center in Virginia Tech’s College of Natural Resources and Environment. “However, the actual patterns and causes of variation of water quality in headwater streams are often unknown.”"Understanding the chemistry of these streams at a finer scale could help to identify factors impairing water quality and help us protect aquatic ecosystems,” said Gene E. Likens, president emeritus and distinguished senior scientist emeritus with the Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies and the University of Connecticut.Results of the study that used a new statistical tool to describe spatial patterns of water chemistry in stream networks are published in the April 21 issue of the Proceedings of the National Academies of Science by a team of ecosystem scientists, including McGuire and Likens.The data used in the new analysis consist of 664 water samples collected every 300 feet throughout all 32 tributaries of the 14-square-mile Hubbard Brook Valley in New Hampshire. The chemistry results were originally reported in 2006 in the journal Biogeochemistry by Likens and Donald C. Buso, manager of field research with the Cary Institute.McGuire and other members of the National Science Foundation’s Long-Term Ecological Research team at the Hubbard Brook Ecosystem Study decided that the huge, high-resolution dataset was ideal for a new statistical approach that examines how water flows both within the stream network and across the landscape.”The goal was to visualize patterns that no one has been able to quantify before now and describe how they vary within headwater stream networks,” said McGuire. “Some chemical constituents vary at a fine scale, that is patterns of chemical change occur over very short distances, for example several hundred feet, but some constituents vary over much larger scales, for example miles. Several chemical constituents that we examined even varied at multiple scales suggesting that nested processes within streams and across the landscape influence the chemistry of stream networks.”"The different spatial relationships permit the examination of patterns controlled by landscape versus stream network processes,” the article reports. Straight-line and unconnected network spatial relationships indicate landscape influences, such as soil, geology, and vegetation controls of water chemistry, for instance. In contrast, flow-connected relationships provide information on processes affected within the flowing streams.The researchers are very familiar with the Hubbard Brook Valley and could point to the varying influences of the geology and distinct soil types, including areas of shallow acidic organic-rich soils.The findings revealed by the analysis technique showed how chemistry patterns vary across landscapes with two scales of variation, one around 1,500 feet and another at about 4 miles. However, when chemistry patterns were examined only in the downstream direction, there was predominantly one scale of variation, which was less than about 1 mile.The journal article concludes, “This spatially explicit, network-level analysis is crucial to refining long-held assumptions and stream structure and function.”"One assumption that is typical in streams is that the chemical variation is controlled primarily by the way in which water flows in streams, which would cause gradients or patterns that are strongly oriented downstream,” said McGuire.”Of course we found that to be the case; however, we were able to show that patterns affected different dissolved chemical elements at different scales, or distances, along the stream network,” he continued. “In addition to downstream gradients, we show that there were also ‘patches’ of variation in the patterns of dissolved chemicals that were caused by processes related to the watershed or landscape.”In other words, natural chemical variation is not just influenced by the flow accumulation in rivers but processes operating within the landscape or watershed that affect the gradual downstream variation in chemistry, which is probably intuitive to most, but has never been quantified at both the fine scale and broad valley-wide extent as examined this study,” McGuire said.”It really highlights the complexity of spatial patterns in stream networks, particularly in these small headwater streams that aggregate to create larger rivers that we all depend on for ecosystem services,” he said. “Understanding the natural variation of water chemistry in these headwater regions may help watershed managers choose better monitoring sites or at least be able to better interpret monitoring data and more efficiently track changes in water quality as land use and climate conditions change.”###Co-authors on the article are McGuire; Christian E. Torgersen of the U.S. Geological Survey, Forest and Rangeland Ecosystem Science Center, Cascadia Field Station in Seattle; Likens; Buso; Winsor H. Lowe of the Division of Biological Sciences at the University of Montana; and Scott W. Bailey of the U.S. Forest Service, Northern Research Station. McGuire and Likens are the corresponding authors.Financial support for data collection was provided by the National Science Foundation and the A.W. Mellon Foundation. Hubbard Brook is part of the White Mountain National Forest in New Hampshire and operated by the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service.Virginia Tech Related Water Quality Current Events and Water Quality News ArticlesEarth Week: Bark beetles change Rocky Mountain stream flows, affect water qualityOn Earth Week–and in fact, every week now–trees in mountains across the western United States are dying, thanks to an infestation of bark beetles that reproduce in the trees’ inner bark. 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Living proof exercising the brain helps it function, provides clues to improving stem cell therapy

Get in that wheel and exercise little guy; it’s good for your brain.
We have long known the brain is not static. Parts of it change and become stronger in response to being stimulated. This “plasticity” as it is called, is generally attributed to changes in the nerves themselves. But a CIRM-funded Stanford team now has proof that strengthening the insulating myelin that wraps the nerves may have a critical role in this plasticity. Think of it as improving the roadbed for the signals being sent along the nerve highway. A few recent studies have suggested this role for myelin, but they have looked at nerves growing in a lab dish. The tests that could have proved this is really happening in living animals have been too invasive until now. The Stanford team, led by Michelle Monje, used a new technique called optogenetics to make the connection in living mice. The procedure inserts the genes for light-sensitive neural switches into specific nerves. Those nerves then fire when researchers expose them to certain wavelengths of light. Because the light can diffuse through the brain from the surface, no invasive probes are necessary. In this case, the light became the brain’s exercise bike. The nerves that had the added gene were the motor nerves, and after a period of stimulation the researchers saw myelin growth and in the following weeks improved muscle function in the mice. Monje’s team attributed the improved myelin status to activity of a type of cell called an oligodendroctye precursor cell, which is the type of brain cell many Stem Cell scientists target for transplanting into patients. In Stem Cell therapy, many researchers consider it better to transplant these middle-man cells created from Stem Cells rather than the Stem Cells themselves. The current study gives the Stem Cell community ways to think about improving the results after transplant. Following up with brain stimulation may be important. A press release from Stanford quotes Monje on the broad implications for her finding:

“Myelin plasticity is a fascinating concept that may help to explain how the brain adapts in response to experience or training. . . and future work on the molecular mechanisms responsible may ultimately shed light on a broad range of neurological and psychiatric diseases.”
In the CIRM-funded project using these findings, Monje’s goal is to find small molecules that could stimulate the activity of the oligodendrocyte precursor cells in patients who have undergone chemotherapy and are experiencing the mental decline dubbed “chemo brain.”

The researchers’ findings are described in a paper that was published online today in Science Express. Don GibbonsCIRM funding: RN3-06510

Is UK shale gas extraction posing a risk to public health?

April 18, 2014Personal view: Public health England’s draft report on shale gas extractionMore needs to be done to investigate the risks to human health that extracting shale gas poses, suggests a personal view published on bmj.com today.Dr. Seth Shonkoff, Executive Director for Physicians Scientists and Engineers for Healthy Energy, and his colleagues say that operations to produce natural gas from formations such as shale sometimes occur “close to human populations”, but efforts to understand the potential impacts have fallen short, focusing on regulations rather than on health outcomes.He says that risk reduction technologies should certainly be deployed, but that reviewing the public health implications of shale gas development “requires more than merely gesturing to technological improvements”. “Best practices”, he adds, “should not be mistaken for actual practices”. In other words, Dr. Shonkoff asserts that scientific data should drive decisions on health and safety, instead of gestures to understudied assertions of best practice deployment.The recent Public Health England draft report on the extraction of shale gas does “recognize that many uncertainties surround the public health implications”, however, there are “problems with its conclusions”.Dr. Shonkoff adds that many “public health impacts remain undetermined and more environmental and public health studies are needed”. He says “more attention should have been paid to drilling in areas that are densely populated” especially following results from studies, which suggest that health risks have direct relation to the “geographical proximity of residences to active shale gas extraction” with further evidence suggesting adverse birth outcomes.Dr. Shonkoff concludes that there is a need for the “assessment of the public health infrastructure and the ability of healthcare professionals to respond to the risks presented by the development of the shale gas industry” and that rigorous research is needed to assess the risks to public health. BMJ-British Medical Journal Related Public Health Current Events and Public Health News ArticlesDistracted driving among teens threatens public health and safetyMotor vehicle crashes rank as the leading cause of teen deaths and in 2008, 16% of all distraction-related fatal automobile crashes involved drivers under 20 years of age. Researcher looks at public perceptions around newborn testingWhile 94 per cent of Canadians surveyed said they would participate in public health programs that screen newborns for a specific number of genetic conditions, only 80 per cent said they would be willing to participate in screening that would sequence their newborns’ genomes.New MRSA superbug emerges in BrazilAn international research team led by Cesar A. Arias, M.D., Ph.D., at The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston (UTHealth) has identified a new superbug that caused a bloodstream infection in a Brazilian patient.Multitarget TB drug could treat other diseases, evade resistanceA drug under clinical trials to treat tuberculosis could be the basis for a class of broad-spectrum drugs that act against various bacteria, fungal infections and parasites, yet evade resistance, according to a study by University of Illinois chemists and collaborators.Study recalculates cost of combination vaccinesOne of the most popular vaccine brands for children may not be the most cost-effective choice.Chronic inflammation may be linked to aggressive prostate cancerThe presence of chronic inflammation in benign prostate tissue was associated with high-grade, or aggressive, prostate cancer, and this association was found even in those with low prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels, according to a study published in Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention, a journal of the American Association for Cancer Research.New research shows people are thinking about their health early in the weekA new study in the American Journal of Preventive Medicine analyzing weekly patterns in health-related Google searches reveals a recurring pattern that could be leveraged to improve public health strategies. Scientists unlock secrets of protein produced by disease-causing fungusA team that includes scientists from the School of Medicine at The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, Johns Hopkins University and St. Mary’s University reported the structure of a protein that helps a common fungus to infect the body.Prolonged and heavy bleeding during menopause is commonWomen going through menopause most likely think of it as the time for an end to predictable monthly periods.Study examines vitamin D deficiency and cognition relationshipVitamin D deficiency and cognitive impairment are common in older adults, but there isn’t a lot of conclusive research into whether there’s a relationship between the two. More Public Health Current Events and Public Health News Articles

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Public Health: What It Is And How It Worksby Bernard J. Turnock (Author)Using a straightforward systems approach, Public Health: What It Is and How It Works explores the inner workings of the complex, modern U.S. public health system—what it is, what it does, how it works, and why it is important. It covers the origins and development of the modern public health system; the relationship of public health to the overall health system; how the system is organized at the federal, state, and local levels; its core functions and how well these are currently being addressed; evidence-based practice and an approach to program planning and evaluation for public health interventions; public health activities such as epidemiological investigation, biomedical research, environmental assessment, policy development, and more. Transition to the New Edition! Click here to…

Stem cell agency educating patients on how they can make a difference

New brochure that describes our Stem Cell bank initiative [download pdf]Geoff Lomax is CIRM’s Senior Officer for Medical & Ethical Standards One thing patients and their families can do to advance the role of Stem Cells in curing disease is to donate a small skin or blood sample if asked. How can this help? Here is an anecdote from recently published research.
Perhaps you heard the recent news about a breakthrough that provides new hope for treating ALS, also known as Lou Gehrig’s disease. Researchers at Harvard University used patients’ skin cells to create Stem Cells that can form any cell in the body. The researchers then transformed the Stem Cells into motor neurons. ALS is a disease where motor neuron death leads to the death of the patient. The research team observed that ALS patients’ motor neurons behaved differently that those of people without the disease. Specifically, the neurons were over stimulated and “firing” too rapidly. Based on this observation, the team conducted a clinical trial in a “dish.” They tested an anti-epilepsy medication on the ALS patient neurons to reduce their rate of firing, and in fact, the treatment slowed the cells down (read the Harvard Gazette report on the research). Experiments such as these (1) help explain the disease process and (2) allow testing of treatments in the laboratory.

CIRM believes success stories such as these will become more and more common as scientists use Stem Cells to study different diseases. In 2013, CIRM announced the creation of a Stem Cell bank designed to store and distribute cells representing different diseases including autism, blindness, cardiovascular disease, Alzheimer’s and liver disease. The bank is specifically intended to make Stem Cells available to researchers so they can better explain these diseases and test new treatments just like the Harvard team did.

One critical aspect of the project involves obtaining skin or blood samples from thousands of patient donors so they can be transformed into Stem Cells. The process of obtaining permissions from patients is called “informed consent.” Informed consent always includes information about the purpose of the research and disclosure of any risks to the participant. In the context of the CIRM Stem Cell bank, donors receive detailed information about how the cells might be used and distributed. Spelling all this out is rather lengthy with some consent forms running as long as 22 pages.

While providing comprehensive consent to donors in writing is necessary, we also believe it is helpful to give them easy to understand information about the essential and unique aspects of the research. To address this need, CIRM worked with experts in health communication to develop a brochure describing the Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Initiative.

CIRM has distributed the brochure to researchers who are collecting cells from donors. The researchers have been pleased to receive this supplemental information to support the consent process. Again, the major purpose of the brochure is to highlight the unique and essential aspect of the Stem Cell bank. Thus, it emphasizes:

What are Stem Cells and why are they unique
How the donation process works
How donated cells will be used and
Where and to whom the Stem Cells will be distributed

These points are explained in plain English with many illustrations. We hope this level of information serves to reinforce the overall informed consent process. We hope patients come away from this experience feeling they have made a substantial contribution to science and medicine.Geoff Lomax

Casual marijuana use linked to brain abnormalities in students

April 16, 2014First study to show dramatic effects of small time use; more ‘joints’ equal more damageCHICAGO — Young adults who used marijuana only recreationally showed significant abnormalities in two key brain regions that are important in emotion and motivation, scientists report. The study was a collaboration between Northwestern Medicine® and Massachusetts General Hospital/Harvard Medical School.This is the first study to show casual use of marijuana is related to major brain changes. It showed the degree of brain abnormalities in these regions is directly related to the number of joints a person smoked per week. The more joints a person smoked, the more abnormal the shape, volume and density of the brain regions.”This study raises a strong challenge to the idea that casual marijuana use isn’t associated with bad consequences,” said corresponding and co-senior study author Hans Breiter, M.D. He is a professor of psychiatry and behavioral sciences at Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine and a psychiatrist at Northwestern Memorial Hospital.”Some of these people only used marijuana to get high once or twice a week,” Breiter said. “People think a little recreational use shouldn’t cause a problem, if someone is doing OK with work or school. Our data directly says this is not the case.”The study will be published April 16 in the Journal of Neuroscience.Scientists examined the nucleus accumbens and the amygdala — key regions for emotion and motivation, and associated with addiction — in the brains of casual marijuana users and non-users. Researchers analyzed three measures: volume, shape and density of grey matter (i.e., where most cells are located in brain tissue) to obtain a comprehensive view of how each region was affected.Both these regions in recreational pot users were abnormally altered for at least two of these structural measures. The degree of those alterations was directly related to how much marijuana the subjects used.Of particular note, the nucleus acccumbens was abnormally large, and its alteration in size, shape and density was directly related to how many joints an individual smoked.”One unique strength of this study is that we looked at the nucleus accumbens in three different ways to get a detailed and consistent picture of the problem,” said lead author Jodi Gilman, a researcher in the Massachusetts General Center for Addiction Medicine and an instructor in psychology at Harvard Medical School. “It allows a more nuanced picture of the results.”Examining the three different measures also was important because no single measure is the gold standard. Some abnormalities may be more detectable using one type of neuroimaging analysis method than another. Breiter said the three measures provide a multidimensional view when integrated together for evaluating the effects of marijuana on the brain.”These are core, fundamental structures of the brain,” said co-senior study author Anne Blood, director of the Mood and Motor Control Laboratory at Massachusetts General and assistant professor of psychiatry at Harvard Medical School. “They form the basis for how you assess positive and negative features about things in the environment and make decisions about them.”Through different methods of neuroimaging, scientists examined the brains of young adults, ages 18 to 25, from Boston-area colleges; 20 who smoked marijuana and 20 who didn’t. Each group had nine males and 11 females. The users underwent a psychiatric interview to confirm they were not dependent on marijuana. They did not meet criteria for abuse of any other illegal drugs during their lifetime.The changes in brain structures indicate the marijuana users’ brains are adapting to low-level exposure to marijuana, the scientists said.The study results fit with animal studies that show when rats are given tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) their brains rewire and form many new connections. THC is the mind-altering ingredient found in marijuana.”It may be that we’re seeing a type of drug learning in the brain,” Gilman said. “We think when people are in the process of becoming addicted, their brains form these new connections.”In animals, these new connections indicate the brain is adapting to the unnatural level of reward and stimulation from marijuana. These connections make other natural rewards less satisfying.”Drugs of abuse can cause more dopamine release than natural rewards like food, sex and social interaction,” Gilman said. “In those you also get a burst of dopamine but not as much as in many drugs of abuse. That is why drugs take on so much salience, and everything else loses its importance.”The brain changes suggest that structural changes to the brain are an important early result of casual drug use, Breiter said. “Further work, including longitudinal studies, is needed to determine if these findings can be linked to animal studies showing marijuana can be a gateway drug for stronger substances,” he noted.Because the study was retrospective, researchers did not know the THC content of the marijuana, which can range from 5 to 9 percent or even higher in the currently available drug. The THC content is much higher today than the marijuana during the 1960s and 1970s, which was often about 1 to 3 percent, Gilman said.Marijuana is the most commonly used illicit drug in the U.S. with an estimated 15.2 million users, the study reports, based on the National Survey on Drug Use and Health in 2008. The drug’s use is increasing among adolescents and young adults, partially due to society’s changing beliefs about cannabis use and its legal status.A recent Northwestern study showed chronic use of marijuana was linked to brain abnormalities. “With the findings of these two papers,” Breiter said, “I’ve developed a severe worry about whether we should be allowing anybody under age 30 to use pot unless they have a terminal illness and need it for pain.”###The research was supported by grants 14118, 026002, 35 026104, 027804 and 034093 from the National Institute on Drug Abuse, and grant 052368 from the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, all of the National Institutes of Health. The Office of National Drug Control Policy and Northwestern Medicine’s Warren Wright Adolescent Center also supported the research.Northwestern University Related Marijuana Use Current Events and Marijuana Use News ArticlesBrain changes are associated with casual marijuana use in young adultsThe size and shape of two brain regions involved in emotion and motivation may differ in young adults who smoke marijuana at least once a week.Future generations could inherit drug and alcohol useParents who use alcohol, marijuana, and drugs have higher frequencies of children who pick up their habits, according to a study from Sam Houston State University.US cocaine use cut by half, while marijuana consumption jumps, study findsThe use of cocaine dropped sharply across the United States from 2006 to 2010, while the amount of marijuana consumed increased significantly during the same period, according to a new report.Discovery sheds new light on marijuana’s anxiety relief effectsAn international group led by Vanderbilt University researchers has found cannabinoid receptors, through which marijuana exerts its effects, in a key emotional hub in the brain involved in regulating anxiety and the flight-or-fight response.Herbal cannabis not recommended for rheumatology patientsPatients with rheumatic conditions are in need of symptom relief and some are turning to herbal cannabis as a treatment option. However, the effectiveness and safety of medical marijuana to treat symptoms of rheumatic conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, or fibromyalgia is not supported by medical evidence.Prevalence of high school seniors’ marijuana use is expected to increase with legalizationNational support for marijuana (“cannabis”) legalization is increasing in the United States (US). Recreational use was recently legalized in the states of Colorado and Washington; other states across the country are expected to follow suit. New analysis finds hempseed oil packed with health-promoting compoundsLong stigmatized because of its “high”-inducing cousins, hemp – derived from low-hallucinogenic varieties of cannabis – is making a comeback, not just as a source of fiber for textiles, but also as a crop packed with oils that have potential health benefits. U of Tennessee research finds link between alcohol use and domestic violenceAlcohol use is more likely than marijuana use to lead to violence between partners, according to studies done at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville.More illness from synthetic marijuana likelyThe U.S. should prepare for more outbreaks of illness and possible deaths from designer drugs including synthetic marijuana, according to the new research from the University of Colorado School of Medicine.Parental exposure to THC Linked to drug addiction, compulsive behavior in unexposed offspringExposing adolescent rats to THC (tetrahydrocannabinol) -the primary psychoactive ingredient in marijuana-can lead to molecular and behavioral alterations in the next generation of offspring, even though progeny were not directly exposed to the drug, researchers at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai have found.More Marijuana Use Current Events and Marijuana Use News Articles

The Cannabis Grow Bible: The Definitive Guide to Growing Marijuana for Recreational and Medical Useby Greg Green (Author)The Cannabis Grow Bible fully explains both the art and science behind growing high-grade pot. Author and aficionado Greg Green blends a thorough understanding of marijuana botany with practical advice on coping with the day-to-day demands of maintaining a high-yield garden, and offers proven methods that maximize both yield and potency. Fully updated and illustrated in full color, and with techniques for both indoor and outdoor cultivation, this comprehensive guide covers everything growers need to know, including how to select the best plant genetics, soil and hydroponic grows, dealing with pests and predators, advanced systems and breeding, and protecting the crop from nosy neighbors. It also explains the “Screen of Green” technique that gives a higher yield using fewer plants….

Marijuana Medical Handbook: Practical Guide to Therapeutic Uses of Marijuanaby Dale Gieringer Ph.D. (Author), Ed Rosenthal (Author), Gregory T. Carter M.D. (Adapter)An estimated 40 million Americans have medical symptoms that marijuana can relieve. Marijuana Medical Handbook is a one-stop resource that gives candid, objective advice on using marijuana for healing, understanding its effects on the body, safe administration, targeting illnesses, side effects, and the various delivery methods from edibles and tinctures to smokeless vaporizer pipes. The book also details supply issues, cultivation solutions (in a chapter by renowned expert Ed Rosenthal), and legal consequences. This thoroughly revised edition incorporates the most up-to-date information on the ever-changing politics of marijuana, the plant’s usage, and medical research on it.

7 Prayers and Biblical Reasons to Consider About Recreational Marijuana Useby JLD Publishing, Inc.I came across a long standing rationale from many pro-marijuana users saying how ‘God gave us every seed bearing plant and he said it was good.’ Which also contested that if high-fructose corn syrup, caffeine, alcohol and other addictive foods are legal, then why shouldn’t we be able to have the freedom to choose if we use marijuana.
In an attempt to try to build a case for God’s freedom to allow us to do whatever we want, I’m taking on a potentially contentious issue in the arena of Christianity and living today. Writing this in a reflection, prayer focus with room for your interpretation and application is difficult without providing some God centered application questions. I personally tried marijuana at parties in high school over a period of about 1 year. …

Marijuana Cooking: Good Medicine Made Easyby Bliss Cameron (Author), Veronica Green (Author)In Marijuana Cooking: Good Medicine Made Easy, authors Bliss Cameron and Veronica Green guide would-be chefs through the process of making their own tasty and healthy home-remedies using marijuana. Step-by-step instructions and photographs carefully document the cooking techniques described, making this the most user-friendly marijuana cookbook available.Increasing awareness of the therapeutic properties of marijuana–to ease tension in the body, relieve pain and pressure, promote appetite, and induce overall relaxation–has generated widespread interest in its use as a medicine. Without doubt, the best and safest medicinal application of marijuana is ingestion.What makes this book truly unique is the careful attention paid to the individual needs of those who rely on the…

Marijuana Horticulture: The Indoor/Outdoor Medical Grower’s Bibleby Jorge Cervantes (Author)With 512 full color pages and 1120 full color photographs and illustrations, Marijuana Horticulture: The Indoor/Outdoor Medical Grower’s Bible is the most complete cultivation book available. The Fifth Edition of the former Indoor Marijuana Horticulture: The Indoor Bible was originally published in 1983, when it immediately became a best seller. More than 500,000 copies of the Indoor Bible are in print in Dutch, English, French, German and Spanish. New greenhouse and outdoor growing chapters make this a book both indoor and outdoor growers will keep under thumb. The other 15 chapters (17 total) are all updated with the most current information, completely rewritten and significantly expanded. For example, Dr. John McPartland contributed an all new medical section – The…

Aunt Sandy’s Medical Marijuana Cookbook: Comfort Food for Mind and Bodyby Sandy Moriarty (Author), Richard Lee (Preface), Denis Peron (Preface)Medical edibles have come a long way since the infamous pot brownies that were consumed with crunchy, awful-tasting leaves and stems. Aunt Sandy’s Medical Marijuana Cookbook is a collection of recipes by cooking instructor, Sandy Moriarty, who is a professor at Oaksterdam University in Oakland Ca. Oaksterdam University has pioneered training for jobs in the booming marijuana industry.The cookbook is retro in design and content, reminiscent of classic Betty Crocker-type comfort foods. Some of Sandy’s favorites include mac and cheese, spicy buffalo wings, and scalloped potatoes.The book visually demonstrates and reveals the process for creating Sandy’s 10x Cannabutter. It includes 40 easy-to-prepare, delicious dishes from her signature dessert, Blue Sky Lemon Bars, to…

Muscle Spasm, Pain & Marijuana Therapy: Testimony from Federal and State Court Proceedings on Marijuana’s Medical Use (Marijuana, Medicine & the Law Series)by R. C. Randall (Editor)Testimony and affidavits of patients and doctors from hearings before the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) and state courts. Personalized accounts of medical marijuana use provide an excellent source of information on this controversial topic.

Super-Charged: How Outlaws, Hippies, and Scientists Reinvented Marijuanaby Jim Rendon (Author)Marijuana has been illegal in the United States since 1937. Yet, thanks in large part to a loosely connected underground world of breeders, dealers, and smokers, there are currently more than 2000 varieties available. And since 1996, when California first passed legislation allowing for legalized medical marijuana, the underground has slowly surfaced, pushing what was once a decentralized, lawless world closer to the corporate world of business, agriculture, and pharmaceuticals. Super-Charged gets up close and personal with the people who have transformed this controversial drug. With personalities and backgrounds as diverse as the plant itself, the growers include a former Silicon Valley software entrepreneur; third-generation Humboldt, California, growers; a publicly traded…
 

Uses of Marijuanaby Solomon H. Snyder (Author)

Marijuana – What’s a Parent to Believe? (Informed Parent)by MD Timmen L. Cermak (Author)As a parent, if you’re not sure what to believe about marijuana, how will you handle the subject with your child? Maybe you smoked pot as a teen, or you use marijuana today. Maybe you never tried pot, or you don’t even know what it looks like. Maybe you’re simply confused over conflicting claims about the drug whether it’s addictive, how harmful it is, why some think it should be legalized. The best way for you to help your teen make healthy choices is to be informed. This much-needed book about America’s most widely used illegal drug helps parents sort through the latest facts, the known risks, and the divergent perspectives on pot. The basic message? For teens, marijuana use equals risk. Your basic message? That’s up to you.

Light activation may make nerves grown from stem cells better at restoring paralyzed muscle

Using Stem Cells as a repair kit often requires two steps, maturing the Stem Cells into the right tissue, and then getting that new tissue to behave the way it is needed. Specifically, getting motor nerves to restore function to paralyzed muscle requires them to signal the muscle to contract when needed. So, a team in London has inserted a gene into the Stem Cells that allows the resulting nerves to be activated by light pulses. Working at University College London and Kings College London the researchers found a way to fine-tune muscle control by adjusting the intensity, duration and frequency of light pulses delivered to the new nerves grown in mice through fiber optic tubes. They worked with mice that had a leg injury, but a press release from the universities made clear the real game changer from this technology will come in rescuing the muscle of the diaphragm that requires specific pacing to enable breathing. Linda Greensmith of University College said:

Within the next five years or so, we hope to undertake the steps that are necessary to take this ground-breaking approach into human trials, potentially to develop treatments for patients with motor neuron disease, many of whom eventually lose the ability to breathe, as their diaphragm muscles gradually become paralyzed. We eventually hope to use our method to create a sort of optical pacemaker for the diaphragm to keep these patients breathing.

The researchers published their work in the journal Science last Friday and the website HEALTHCANAL ran the university press release. One disease where well-timed support of the diaphragm could be a lifesaver is ALS or Lou Gehrig’s disease. You can read about CIRM projects moving toward the clinic on our amyotrophic lateral sclerosis fact sheet.Don Gibbons

Reef fish arrived in two waves

April 10, 2014The world’s reefs are hotbeds of biological diversity, including over 4,500 species of fish. A new study shows that the ancestors of these fish colonized reefs in two distinct waves, before and after the mass extinction event about 66 million years ago that wiped out the dinosaurs.Reef fish represent one of the largest and most diverse assemblages of vertebrates, according to Samantha Price, a postdoctoral researcher in the Department of Evolution and Ecology at UC Davis. Price is first author on a paper describing the work, published April 2 in the journal Proceedings of the Royal Society B.The fossil record of reef fish is patchy, so Price and colleagues traced their ancestry by developing a comprehensive family tree of the major group of modern ocean fish, the acanthomorphs or “spiny-finned fish,” and calculating the times when different groups migrated into or out of reef habitats.The first wave of colonization occurred between 70 and 90 million years ago, before the end of the Cretaceous period, they found. At that time, most the world’s reefs were built not by coral but by mollusks called rudists.Rudists disappeared in the mass extinction at the end of the Cretaceous, 66 million years ago, and corals became the world’s great reef builders. While the first-wave reef fish hung on to leave descendants in the present, a second wave of colonization took place as the world recovered from the extinction event.The early wave of colonization began with lots of different-looking fish and over time there was an eventual filling of ecological niches accompanied by a decrease in colonization, Price said.By about 50 million years ago, the fundamentals of modern coral reefs, including the ancestors of most major families, such as clownfishes and parrotfishes, were in place, Price said.”If you were able to dive on a coral reef 50 million years ago, the fishes would seem familiar, you would recognize it as similar to a modern reef,” she said.Co-authors on the paper are Professor Peter Wainwright, UC Davis; Lars Schmitz, Claremont McKenna College; Christopher Oufiero, Towson University; Ron Eytan, Alex Dornburg and Thomas Near, Yale University; Wm. Leo Smith, University of Kansas; and Matt Friedman, University of Oxford. The work was funded by the National Science Foundation and the Natural Environment Research Council (U.K.).About UC DavisFor more than 100 years, UC Davis has been one place where people are bettering humanity and our natural world while seeking solutions to some of our most pressing challenges. Located near the state capital, UC Davis has more than 33,000 students, over 2,500 faculty and more than 21,000 staff, an annual research budget of over $750 million, a comprehensive health system and 13 specialized research centers. The university offers interdisciplinary graduate study and more than 100 undergraduate majors in four colleges – Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Biological Sciences, Engineering, and Letters and Science. It also houses six professional schools – Education, Law, Management, Medicine, Veterinary Medicine and the Betty Irene Moore School of Nursing.DavisRelated Reef Fish Current Events and Reef Fish News ArticlesFish species unique to Hawaii dominate deep coral reefs in Northwestern Hawaiian IslandsDeep coral reefs in Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument (PMNM) may contain the highest percentage of fish species found nowhere else on Earth, according to a study by NOAA scientists published in the Bulletin of Marine Science.Bucking Conventional Wisdom, Researchers Find Black Sea Bass Tougher Than ExpectedIn a new study, fisheries researchers from North Carolina State University found that black sea bass (Centropristis striata) can usually survive the physical trauma that results from being hauled up from deep water then released at the surface. Researchers gain new insights into ancient Pacific settlers’ dietResearchers from New Zealand’s University of Otago studying 3000-year-old skeletons from the oldest known cemetery in the Pacific Islands are casting new light on the diet and lives of the enigmatic Lapita people, the likely ancestors of Polynesians.Scripps Leads First Global Snapshot of Key Coral Reef FishesIn the first global assessment of its kind, a science team led by researchers at Scripps Institution of Oceanography at UC San Diego has produced a landmark report on the impact of fishing on a group of fish known to protect the health of coral reefs.New study suggests coral reefs may be able to adapt to moderate climate changeCoral reefs may be able to adapt to moderate climate warming, improving their chance of surviving through the end of this century, if there are large reductions in carbon dioxide emissions.Seafood Menus Reflect Long-term Ocean Changes The colorful restaurant menus that thousands of tourists bring home as souvenirs from Hawaii hold more than happy memories of island vacations; they contain valuable data that are helping a trio of researchers track long-term changes to important fisheries in the Aloha State.Boat noise stops fish finding homeBoat noise disrupts orientation behaviour in larval coral reef fish, according to new research from the Universities of Bristol, Exeter and Liège. Reef fish are normally attracted by reef sound but the study, conducted in French Polynesia, found that fish are more likely to swim away from recordings of reefs when boat noise is added.Abundance and distribution of Hawaiian coral species predicted by modelResearchers from the University of Hawaii – Manoa (UHM) School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST) developed species distribution models of the six dominant Hawaiian coral species around the main Hawaiian Islands including two species currently under consideration as threatened or endangered.Insights into deadly coral bleaching could help preserve reefsCoral reefs are stressed the world over and could be in mortal danger because of climate change. But why do some corals die and others not, even when exposed to the same environmental conditions?Indonesian fishing communities find balance between biodiversity and developmentFishing communities living on the islands of Indonesia’s Karimunjawa National Park have found an important balance, improving their social well-being while reducing their reliance on marine biodiversity, according to the Wildlife Conservation Society and the University of Western Australia. More Reef Fish Current Events and Reef Fish News Articles

Reef Fish Identification: Florida, Caribbean, Bahamasby Paul Humann (Author), Ned DeLoach (Author)825 classic marine life photographs of 600 common and rare reef fish species. The easy-to-use, quick reference format makes it a snap to identify the myriad of fishes in Florida, Caribbean and Bahamas waters. A must for every serious diver. 6 inch x 9 inch, cloth stitched flexibinding that allows the book to lie flat.

Reef Fish Identification – Tropical Pacificby Gerald Allen (Author), Roger Steene (Author), Paul Humann (Author), Ned DeLoach (Author)Finally, a comprehensive fish identification guide covering the fish-rich reefs of the Pacific. It contains 2,500 underwater photographs of 2,000 species from four of the best marine life authors/photographers in the business. Their collaboration makes it possible for underwater naturalists to identify fishes from Thailand to Tahiti with a single, compact, easy-to-use, no-nonsense reference. 108 fish families are presented in one of 20 Identification groups based on a family’s related visual or behavioural characteristics, such as Large Oval / Colourful or Sand/Burrow Dwellers. Likewise, every effort has been made to group similar appearing species together.

The Reef Set: Reef Fish, Reef Creature and Reef Coral (3 Volumes)by Paul Humann (Author), Ned Deloach (Author)3 books in slipcase. Copies of: Reef Fish Identification: Florida, Caribbean & Bahamas ; (3rd Edition); Reef Creature Identification: Florida, Caribbean & Bahamas (3rd Edition) and Reef Coral Identification: Florida, Caribbean & Bahamas (3rd Edition) packaged in a beautifully printed shelf case. As of November 1, 2013 it now includes new editions of both Reef Creature and Reef Coral.

Reef Fish Identification – Travel Edition – Caribbean Bahamas South Floridaby Paul Humann (Author), Ned DeLoach (Author)Reef Fish Identification Travel Edition Caribbean Bahamas South Florida is a portable, lightweight field guide rugged enough for gear bag and boat. The comprehensive, 132-page Travel Edition details 281 fish species with 560 brilliant identification photographs in a 6 x 9 format. At ¾ of a pound it is readily portable, yet packed with plenty of information for even the most advanced fishwatchers. Durable waterproof and tear-proof PVC covers combined with a sturdy plastic comb binding allow a quick search for your favorite fishes.

Coral Reef Fishes: Indo-Pacific and Caribbeanby Ewald Lieske (Author), Robert Myers (Author)Expanded and updated to include an additional 44 species, this is a handy guide to those fishes that are likely to be observed by anybody visiting or diving on the coral reefs of the Caribbean, the Indian Ocean, and the Pacific to a depth of sixty meters. Accessible to amateur marine life enthusiasts, this book is the first comprehensive guide of its kind. It enables the reader to quickly identify 2,118 species of fish and includes over 2,500 color illustrations depicting the major forms of each species–male, female, immature, or geographical varieties. The text proceeds according to region, depicting each species and its varieties, and offering information on its geographic range and where on the coral reef itself the fish may be found. Important identification characteristics are…

A PocketExpert Guide to Reef Aquarium Fishes: 500+ Essential-to-Know Species (Microcosm/T.F.H. Professional)by Scott W. Michael (Author)Brilliant photography by the world’s best underwater photographers and leading international aquarists highlights detailed profiles of more than 500 species of reef aquarium fishes in this new title in the Microcosm/T.F.H. Professional Series. Organized by family for easy reference, each profile includes all essential care, feeding, and husbandry advice. The species profiles include all available reef aquarium choices, with scores of seldom seen, rare, and recently discovered species. Written by the world’s most-read, most-respected expert on marine fishes for the home aquarium, PocketExpert(tm) Guide to Reef Aquarium Fishes is a must-read for any fish enthusiast.

Reef Fish Identification: Florida, Caribbean, Bahamasby Paul Humann (Author), Ned Deloach (Editor)Book by Humann, Paul

Reef Fishes Volume 1by Scott W. Michael (Author)Covering 68 families and thousands of species, Reef Fishes is an authoritative guide designed to be a lifelong reference for saltwater aquarists, divers, and amateur reef naturalists. This volume covers coral reef habitats and fish families, with detailed information on major groups.

Reef Creature Identification Tropical Pacificby Paul Humann (Author), Ned DeLoach (Author)The long-awaited, 500-page reference detailing 1,600 animals with 2,000 photographs and descriptive text is not only the most comprehensive visual field guide to marine invertebrate life inhabiting the waters from Thailand to Tahiti, but also a pictorial tour de force skillfully bridging science and the aesthetic. For the past five years the two authors/photographers have delved deep into uncharted waters, not only visually documenting numerous species for the first time, but also incorporating the most recent taxonomic research of more than 40 scientific specialists. The text focuses on mobile species, highlighting crustaceans, mollusks, worms and echinoderms, however the pages include an overview of attached marine animals, and also explore facets of marine invertebrate behavior. The…

Reef Life: A Guide to Tropical Marine Lifeby Brandon Cole (Author), Scott Michael (Author)A practical, up-to-date, comprehensive guidebook for divers, naturalists and students, featuring more than 1000 color photographs of 800 species of ocean life. From tide pools to coral reefs and the open ocean beyond lies a world abounding with an assortment of colorful fish and fascinating creatures. The lure of the life that inhabits the ocean’s reefs and open water is no secret to scuba enthusiasts and snorkelers who enjoy the opportunity to gaze upon this wonderful world through their dive masks. Reef Life identifies the most-likely encountered underwater life in the tropical marine environment, featuring more than 800 beautiful color photographs that provide the keys to this magnificent world. A gallery of more than 400 species offers readers an extensive identification…

Military Marches in Step with Stem Cell Agency By Helping Bring ALS Research at Cedars-Sinai to Clinical Trials

Motor neurons control our muscle movements. In ALS, these cells die.
In 2012, CIRM’s Board awarded over $17 million to a Cedars-Sinai Medical Center team to help bring a Stem Cell based therapy for ALS (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis) to clinical trials in people. Yesterday, the Department of Defense (DoD) got into the act by announcing a $2.5 million grant to the same Cedars-Sinai team to help fund very similar ALS-related research. The military spends several million annually on ALS research because the disease affects an unusually high percentage of veterans for reasons that are not understood.ALS, also known as Lou Gehrig’s disease, is a nightmare of a disease, which is usually fatal within 4-5 years of initial diagnosis. The disease occurs when the cells in the brain or spinal cord that send signals to the muscle to move, called motor neurons, die off. Here’s how Dr. Clive Svendsen, the leader of the Cedars-Sinai team describes the impact of ALS:

The disease’s effects typically start in one limb, beginning with weakness and leading to paralysis, before moving to other limbs and to muscles throughout the body. The most common cause of death is respiratory failure when the diaphragm muscles become incapacitated.
The CIRM-funded Disease Team led by Svendsen has found that a protein called GDNF can protect the motor neurons that aren’t already damaged by ALS. But it’s proved extremely difficult to deliver the GDNF to the spinal cord since it doesn’t readily cross from the blood into the spinal cord area. So Svendsen’s team has engineered neural Stem Cells to produce GDNF. When injected into people, the idea goes, these neurons will home in to the sick motor neurons and deliver the GDNF exactly where it’s needed. The Department of Defense-funded project announced yesterday also relies on the protective effects of GDNF. As reported in a press release, which was picked up by Phys.Org, the team will deliver the protein into the muscle tissue of the leg and diaphragm where ALS often attacks. Former Svendsen lab member and now University of Wisconsin, Madison professor Dr. Msatoshi Suzuki describes the advantages of delivery to the muscle:
It seems clear that GDNF has potent neuroprotective effects on motor neuron function when the protein is delivered at the level of the muscle, regardless of the delivery method. We think GDNF will be able to help maintain these connections in patients and thereby keep the motor neuron network functional.

The DoD funding will help make possible the necessary animal studies to get this therapeutic strategy to clinical trials. Because it’s always difficult to predict the success of clinical trials, Svendsen’s team is smart to pursue this two-pronged approach to treating ALS. In the concluding paragraph of the press release, CIRM’s Disease Team award is mentioned so it’s great to see that our funding has helped attract additional funding from other organizations. Hopefully this will translate into a speedier end to those suffering from this dreadful disease.
For more information about CIRM-funded ALS research, visit our ALS fact sheet. You can also watch a video of a recent CIRM-hosted Google Hangout about Stem Cell therapies for ALS featuring Dr. Svendsen. Todd Dubnicoff

TGen study identifies growth factor receptors that may prompt the spread of lung cancer

April 10, 2014Preventing lung cancers from metastasizing to other parts of the body could provide benefit for patients against the leading cause of cancer death. Two cell surface receptors might be responsible for the most common form of lung cancer spreading to other parts of the body, according to a study led by the Translational Genomics Research Institute (TGen).The hepatocyte growth factor receptor (HGFR/MET) and fibroblast growth factor-inducible 14 (FN14) are proteins associated with the potential spread of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), according to the TGen study published online April 8 by the scientific journal Clinical & Experimental Metastasis.NSCLC represents more than 85 percent of all lung cancers, which this year will kill an estimated 159,000 Americans, making it by far the leading cause of cancer-related death. It has a 5-year survival rate less than 10 percent.The invasive and metastatic nature of NSCLC contributes to this high mortality rate, and so finding the cause of this potential to spread is key to helping patients survive.Therapies targeting MET and FN14 are in clinical development, which could lead to treatments that could help halt or slow the spread of this lung cancer.”As the metastatic phenotype is a major cause of lung cancer mortality, understanding and potentially targeting these pathways may reduce the high mortality rate in advanced lung cancer,” said Dr. Timothy Whitsett, an Assistant Professor in TGen’s Cancer and Cell Biology Division, and the study’s lead author.Significantly, the TGen study found that MET and FN14 were elevated in metastatic tumors compared to primary lung tumors and suppression of MET activation or FN14 expression reduced tumor cell invasion. “The elevation of these receptors in metastatic disease opens the possibility for therapeutic intervention,” said Dr. Nhan Tran, an Associate Professor in TGen’s Cancer and Cell Biology Division, and the study’s senior author.Dr. Glen Weiss, Co-Unit Head of TGen’s Lung Cancer Research Laboratory and Director of Clinical Research at Cancer Treatment Centers of America at Western Regional Medical Center, said, “This study identifies some targets that already have drugs in clinical trials, and helps put them into context for what might be a rational drug development approach for the treatment of this deadly cancer.”Other institutes that assisted with this study are: the University of Arizona; St. Joseph’s Hospital and Medical Center; and Humboldt Medical Specialists.The study, FN14 expression correlates with MET in NSCLC and promotes MET-driven cell invasion, was funded by the National Institutes of Health, and grants from the St. Joseph’s Foundation and the American Lung Association.# # #About TGenTranslational Genomics Research Institute (TGen) is a Phoenix, Arizona-based non-profit organization dedicated to conducting groundbreaking research with life changing results. TGen is focused on helping patients with cancer, neurological disorders and diabetes, through cutting edge translational research (the process of rapidly moving research towards patient benefit). TGen physicians and scientists work to unravel the genetic components of both common and rare complex diseases in adults and children. Working with collaborators in the scientific and medical communities literally worldwide, TGen makes a substantial contribution to help our patients through efficiency and effectiveness of the translational process. For more information, visit: www.tgen.org.The Translational Genomics Research Institute (TGen)Related Lung Cancer Current Events and Lung Cancer News ArticlesIncreased risk of developing lung cancer after radiotherapy for breast cancerWomen who have radiotherapy for breast cancer have a small but significantly increased risk of subsequently developing a primary lung tumour, and now research has shown that this risk increases with the amount of radiation absorbed by the tissue.Blood test could provide rapid, accurate method of detecting solid cancersA blood sample could one day be enough to diagnose many types of solid cancers, or to monitor the amount of cancer in a patient’s body and responses to treatment.Team identifies novel biomarker for head and neck cancer, non-small cell lung cancerA team led by a scientist from the Florida campus of The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) has identified a new biomarker linked to better outcomes of patients with head and neck cancers and non-small cell lung cancer. Gene may predict if further cancer treatments are neededUT Southwestern Medical Center researchers are developing a new predictive tool that could help patients with breast cancer and certain lung cancers decide whether follow-up treatments are likely to help. Call for more awareness of sexual dysfunction in lung cancer patientsMany lung cancer patients suffer difficulties with sexual expression and intimacy, yet for too long the topic has been ignored by doctors and researchers, experts have said at the 4th European Lung Cancer Conference (ELCC).Preoperative PET Cuts Unnecessary Lung Surgeries in HalfNew quantitative data suggests that 30 percent of the surgeries performed for non-small cell lung cancer patients in a community-wide clinical study were deemed unnecessary.Immunotherapy data heralds new era of lung cancer treatmentA new era of lung cancer therapy is close to dawning, using drugs that can prevent tumour cells from evading the immune system, experts have said at the 4th European Lung Cancer Congress.Inherited mutated gene raises lung cancer risk for women, those who never smokedPeople who have an inherited mutation of a certain gene have a high chance of getting lung cancer – higher, even, than heavy smokers with or without the inherited mutation, according to new findings by cancer researchers at UT Southwestern Medical Center. Potential lung cancer vaccine shows renewed promiseResearchers at UC Davis have found that the investigational cancer vaccine tecemotide, when administered with the chemotherapeutic cisplatin, boosted immune response and reduced the number of tumors in mice with lung cancer. Moffitt Cancer Center Researchers Discover New Mechanism Allowing Tumor Cells to Escape Immune SurveillanceThe immune system plays a pivotal role in targeting cancer cells for destruction. However, tumor cells are smart and have developed ways to avoid immune detection.More Lung Cancer Current Events and Lung Cancer News Articles

Lung Cancer: A Guide to Diagnosis and Treatmentby Walter J. Scott MD (Author)What is my prognosis? What are my treatment options? Which therapies would be the most effective for my stage of lung cancer? These and other frequently asked questions are addressed in this crucial reference designed to help patients educate themselves and obtain the best possible treatments. The completely revised second edition has been updated to include a discussion of the movement towards customized chemotherapy; treatment options for early-stage lung cancer including minimally invasive surgery; and the most promising treatments, among them multimodality therapy—a combination of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation. Dr. Scott also surveys tests for early detection of lung cancer, talks about the importance of cancer staging, examines alternative treatments, and offers advice on…

Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Across the Continuum of Careby Asante Communications, LLCThis Clinical Resource Tool is structured around consensus statements developed by the Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) Working Group, a panel of oncologists with particular expertise in the multidimensional care of patients with advanced lung cancer. Using a modified Delphi process, the NSCLC Working Group has consolidated published evidence and expert clinical experience on critical issues pertaining to the comprehensive assessment of patients with advanced NSCLC, formulation of appropriate treatment regimens, implementation of maintenance therapy, and therapeutic alliances among pathologists, oncologists, and pulmonologists. The consensus statements and accompanying resources are intended as a practical companion to current guidelines, helping clinicians individualize best-practice…

Johns Hopkins Patients’ Guide To Lung Cancerby Justin F. Klamerus (Author), Julie R. Brahmer (Author), David S Ettinger (Author)Johns Hopkins Patients’ Guide to Lung Cancer is a concise, easy-to-follow “how to” guide that puts you on the path to wellness by explaining lung cancer treatment from start to finish. It guides you through the overwhelming maze of treatment decisions, simplifies the complicated schedule that lies ahead, and performs the task of putting together your plan of care in layman’s terms. Empower yourself with accurate, understandable information that will give you the ability to confidently participate in the decision making about your care and treatment.

You Can Beat Lung Cancer: Using Alternative/Integrative Interventionsby Carl O. Helvie (Author)Can you overcome lung cancer without harsh chemicals, surgery and debilitation? Are alternative interventions effective? Why do conventional physicians not use them? Can you prevent cancer recurrences and live into old age without chronic diseases and prescribed medications? This book answers these and other questions.This is one of the most comprehensive books available on alternative treatments for lung cancer. It explains the treatments used successfully by a health professional/cancer survivor of 36 years and by some of the leading medical and health practitioners currently in the field. G. Edward Griffin, Author of World Without Cancer, The Politics of Cancer Therapy, and other books and films. Recipient of the Telly Award for Excellence in Television Production. President of…

Lung Cancer: Myths, Facts, Choices–and Hopeby Claudia I. Henschke (Author), Peggy McCarthy (Author), Sarah Wernick (Contributor)An authoritative book with new lifesaving strategies for those at risk and those already diagnosed. Lung cancer kills more women than breast cancer, more men than prostate cancer. This authoritative book presents new lifesaving strategies for those already diagnosed and those at risk (including ex-smokers).Lung cancer is deadly because it’s usually found late. Dr. Claudia Henschke’s groundbreaking research on early diagnosis, published in Lancet, made headlines worldwide. Now, for the first time, she offers specific recommendations based on her latest findings: who needs to be checked and how to get tested.People with lung cancer often are told, “Nothing can be done.” Not so! Dr. Henschke and coauthor Peggy McCarthy, a leading patient advocate, provide…

Living with Lung Cancer–My Journeyby Thomas E. Cappiello (Author)On October 5 2007, Thomas Cappiello was diagnosed with inoperable Stage IIIA locally-advanced adenocarcinoma (Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer), an incurable disease. This book is the inspirational story of how he beat the odds and survived and thrived in the face of this devastating illness. This book is for patients and caregivers who want to know what life is like after getting a cancer diagnosis. The story is about overcoming the emotional turmoil and devastation of a cancer diagnosis, dealing with the disease, and making choices. Most of all, it’s about living a full life each day. Cancer patients suddenly realize that time is a precious gift from God and there is no time to waste. By telling his story Cappiello seeks to inspire cancer patients to fight hard and live, with whatever time…

How to Survive Lung Cancer – A Practical 12-Step Planby Michael Lloyd (Author)Written by a lung cancer survivor who understands what it takes to beat the odds, this book offers unparalleled hope and direction for anyone facing this illness. It is filled with specific exercises and techniques to promote healing and reverse side effects by taking a pro-active approach in helping to restore your mind, body and spirit to an optimum state of health. Endorsed by a Lung Cancer Specialist and Associate Professor at Harvard Medical School, this book combines what the doctors tell you with critical information they don’t tell you. Visit www.SurviveLungCancer.com for chapter summaries.

Principles and Practice of Lung Cancer: The Official Reference Text of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC)by Harvey I. Pass MD (Editor), David P. Carbone MD PhD (Editor), David H. Johnson MD (Editor), John D. Minna MD (Editor), Giorgio V. Scagliotti MD (Editor), Andrew T. Turrisi III MD (Editor)Thoroughly revised and updated, this Fourth Edition is the most comprehensive, current reference on lung cancer, with contributions from the world’s foremost surgeons, radiation oncologists, medical oncologists, pulmonologists, and basic scientists. Coverage includes complete information on combined modality treatments for small cell and non-small cell lung cancer and on complications of treatment and management of metastases. Emphasis is also given to early detection, screening, prevention, and new imaging techniques. This edition has expanded thoracic oncology chapters including thymus, mesothelioma, and mediastinal tumors, more detailed discussion of targeted agents, and state-of-the-art information on newer techniques in radiotherapy. Other highlights include more international…

Living And Thriving With Lung Cancer (Living And Thriving With Cancer)by Barbara Gitlitz MD (Author), Daniel Oh MD (Contributor), Amol Rao MD (Contributor), Stephen V. Liu MD (Contributor), 0. Kenneth Macdonald MD (Contributor), Wayne T. Lamoreaux MD (Contributor), Robert K. Fairbanks MD (Contributor), Jason A. Call MD (Contributor), Heather Gabbert MS RD (Contributor), Tess Taft MSW (Contributor), Kathy Beach RN (Contributor), Christopher M. Lee MD (Contributor)This patient handbook has been written by clinical experts to help you in your battle with lung cancer. This is a book designed for patients with cancer, or for family members or friends of loved ones with cancer. As cancer therapies evolve, it is important for each patient and their family members to be aware of the resources available to them. If you, a close family member, or close friend has been diagnosed with lung cancer, you probably have 1000 questions floating around in your head; like how this illness will be treated, how you will feel, how this will affect your family and your work, and what should you do next. Any cancer diagnosis has an impact on many aspects of life. This is a fact for everyone. The goal of this book is to provide you with knowledge about your diagnosis and…

Lung Cancer: Diagnosis and Managementby CME Resource/NetCEThe purpose of this course is to address the various aspects of diagnosis, treatment, disease management and appropriate patient care for healthcare professionals caring for patients with lung cancer. In addition, members of the public may use this course to enhance their personal knowledge of the subject matter presented.Upon completion of this course, you should be able to:1. Discuss the risk factors and incidence of lung cancer.2. Explain the pathophysiology of lung cancer.3. Identify the signs and symptoms of lung cancer.4. Discuss the various tests used to diagnose lung cancer.5. Describe the lung cancer classification and staging system.6. Discuss the treatment options available to the patient with lung cancer, including potential…

Building more nerves of the brain and spinal cord, faster and more efficiently

Motor neuron progenitors made from embryonic Stem Cells
The best scientists are, in many ways, like great chefs. It’s not the ingredients that they use that make a great meal, but how they blend them together. In the same way scientists often have the same basic elements but it’s the way they work with those that can make all the difference.Stem Cell researchers at the University of Illinois have found a way to generate human motor neurons – the kinds of nerves found in the brain and spinal cord – that is a lot faster and a lot more efficient than previous methods. And all it took was adding one ingredient to the mix a few days earlier than had previously been done.Motor neurons are important because they carry the signals that help directly or indirectly control muscles and muscle movement. If those neurons are damaged – say in a car crash – then the signals are no longer received and the muscles no longer work.In the past researchers were able to create neurons from Stem Cells by a carefully calculated process of adding in specific proteins at specific times. It worked but it took time, 40 to 50 days, and even then only around 20 to 30 percent of the cells actually became neurons. But this new study, published in the journal Nature Communications, cuts that time in half and increases the efficiency to around 70 percent.The researchers were able to achieve this by adding in a critical element – two signaling molecules – 3 days sooner than they had in the past. The basic recipe for the cells was the same, they just added in two ingredients earlier.In a news release picked up by Science Daily, lead researcher Prof. Fei Wang says this new method will have important benefits:
“To have a rapid, efficient way to generate motor neurons will undoubtedly be crucial to studying — and potentially also treating — spinal cord injuries and diseases like ALS.”
The more immediate benefits of this faster, more efficient method will be to enable researchers to develop motor neurons that can then be used to rapidly screen drugs to see which ones may be of use for treating patients.At the Stem Cell agency we are funding research into a number of diseases where this advance in generating motor neurons might be useful, this includes work in spinal cord injuries and Lou Gehrig’s disease, more formally known as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis or ALSkevin mccormack